Vacancy for Poverty Assessment Officer, MADE, Nigeria
By admin On 15 Jun, 2017 At 12:33 AM | Categorized As Jobs | With 0 Comments


Location: Sub-Saharan Africa
Location: Nigeria
Job Code: 3130


Market Development in the Niger Delta

Terms of Reference: Poverty Assessment


  1. Background

Market Development in the Niger Delta (MADE), a £14m DFID funded programme being implemented by Development Alternatives Incorporated (DAI), is a rural and agricultural market systems development programme for the nine states of the Niger Delta. The programme seeks to increase the incomes of at least 150,000 poor men and women in the Niger Delta. MADE adopts a market development approach to support growth in the region’s non-oil economy by (a) stimulating sustainable, pro-poor growth in selected agricultural and agricultural input markets, and (b) improving the position of economically active poor and women in these markets by making them more inclusive. The ultimate goal being to address the causes of poverty with an expected impact of increased incomes for 150,000 poor people, 50% of whom are women in nine states of the Niger Delta, over a four and half year period (2013-2018).


MADE programme focuses on value chains in which planned interventions are most likely to have the maximum impact on wealth creation and employment, particularly among women, beginning with palm oil, household poultry, fisheries, cassava and agricultural inputs.  In Year 2 (April 2015- March 2016), the programme added finished leather goods sector and a cross-cutting access to finance sector. Annex 1 provides a list of MADE interventions in each of the value chains to date. The interventions listed in Annex 1 are supported by three cross cutting initiatives namely; access to finance, gender and advocacy and communications.


In each of the value chains, MADE applies the ‘Making Markets Work for the Poor’ (M4P) approach by identifying the underlying systemic constraints of why markets do not work for the poor in the value chain, and thereafter facilitate change to the behaviour, capabilities, incentives and relationships of market systems in order to improve the market systems and create the conditions for markets to be continuously strengthened even beyond the lifetime of the programme.


The design phase of the MADE programme (September 2013 to February 2014) focused on establishing the project in the Niger Delta as well as conducting thematic and technical research and analysis. This enabled MADE to select and design sector interventions aligned to the programme’s objectives. The selected sectors are palm oil, aquaculture, smoked fish, and poultry, along with the service sector of agricultural inputs [1].


The Pilot phase started in March 2014 and ran up to 31 August 2014. The focus of this phase was on prototyping, testing and refining interventions through demonstration activities across three selected value chains – Agricultural inputs, fisheries and oil palm. Other activities included to test the assumptions laid out in the sectorial analyses, set up the baseline for the M&E performance measurement, and develop a network of private sector partnerships for collaboration. The Implementation phase will have a life span of 3-5 years, starting in September 2014 and ending on 28 February 2018.


  1. focus of this assignment

The Niger Delta is a critical region for Nigeria’s social and economic development: the serious problems of poverty and instability in the Niger Delta have an impact not only on the 31 million people living in the Delta but also on Nigeria as a whole.  Poverty levels in the Delta are high across a range of poverty indicators. Data from the Conflict Analysis commissioned by MADE (QUEST ref 4496006) suggested that in the Niger Delta: (a) little more than a third of households have access to electricity; (b) the number of doctors per head of population is between a half and a third of the national average, and access to healthcare in remote areas is 2-5%; (c) 30-40% of children are enrolled in primary school, compared with a national average of 76%; (d) an estimated half to three-quarters of households do not have access to safe drinking water [2]. Eight of the nine states experience poverty rates above 50% (the exception being Akwa Ibom at 46.5%), while two are above the national average of 65% – Cross River at 67.8% and Delta at 72.5% [3].


Seen within the wider context, the states of the Niger Delta are among the worst performers in the country. As it is well known, Nigeria has high income disparity between the rich and poor on the one hand, and between men and women on the other hand. Women often operate in the most marginalised market sectors, and undertake crowded roles in value chains which have little room for maximising returns.


Furthermore, the concentration of oil industries in the region has created wage and commodity inflation raising the cost of living and intensifying the experience of poverty among the poor. The distortions caused by the oil industry have also provided a different profile to what it means to be “poor” in the Niger Delta. Overall, this has led to feelings of injustice (given the wealth which the region generates from oil), and this has fueled criminality, violence and insecurity in the region and sometimes at a nation scale – further aggravating and perpetuating the incidence of poverty. According to the UNDP human development report (2006), self-reported poverty for the region is at 75%.


  1. Objective

The purpose of this assignment is to better understand the poor and their context. The assessment, which is intended to analyse the incidence of poverty within the context of MADE Programme sectors and interventions [4], will generate up-to-date and accurate information on the nature and causes of poverty by collecting relevant information from targeted MADE value chains. Findings from this study will support decision making and the programme strategic planning. The study will also promote the involvement and/or participation of key stakeholders and beneficiaries to enhance buy-in, and eventual ownership of the change process that is key to program success and sustainability.


  1. Scope of work

The poverty assessment is based on the understanding that a market which works for the poor is one which expands the choices available to poor people and produces market outcomes that benefit the poor. These outcomes include job opportunities with attractive wage rates, better returns on goods sold, and greater affordability of important products and services. It is also expected that the participation of the poor in these key markets should increase over time.


The implementation of the study will comprise two main phases – a first phase that will involve literature review and development of the assessment methodology (including design of tools) and the implementation (data collection) phase. Specific tasks to be undertaken during the two-phase assessment are outlined in the proposed order below

  1. Literature review of existing documentation, including sector analysis carried out by the project team, other program documents (including results chains and indicators) and other context specific published and unpublished documents that will provide a good understanding of the poverty and context of the MADE’s activities. Given that findings from literature review can shape the scope of a study largely, the literature review should be completed before design of the tools .
  2. Development of tools and methodology for the study. This will include drafting of appropriate survey tools, appropriate sampling strategies and a data collection plan.


  1. Implementation of the poverty study and preparation of the study report. This phase will consist of:
    1. Field data collection on the current level of key results indicators and complementary information that will help guide MADE’s implementation and enhance the understanding of poverty.
    2. Drafting of the study report . The proposed report format is in Section VIII below.


  1. Specific Objectives 

The poverty assessment will be conducted to help MADE define more coherently who is “poor” and “not-so-poor” as well as their characteristics. Using MADE’s definition of the poor in each sector vis-à-vis the World Bank poverty index, the study is intended to support MADE measure  poverty levels i.e. the proportion of MADE beneficiary groups disaggregated by gender who live below the poverty line or are on the verge of falling below the poverty line.


In addition, the study should contribute new knowledge that addresses the following issues and themes:

  1. How poverty and social factors, such as gender, ethnicity, age, marital status,  urban/rural location, affect people’s access to goods and services, resources, economic opportunities, information, and/or decision making in MADE’s sector
  2. How these factors affect people’s vulnerability to chronic or sudden risks in the sectors
  3. The formal and informal mechanisms that enable poor, disadvantaged, and marginalized groups to participate in the sector
  4. The extent to which social networks, self-help groups, and other mechanisms enable poor and marginalized groups to benefit from development initiatives and manage social and economic risks in the sector
  5. In light of the foregoing, how are MADE’s interventions in the Niger Delta supporting more inclusive growth


In addition, the study should update the average household size in the Niger Delta. The Business Case indicates an average household size of 5 for the Niger Delta.


  1. Generic Questions 

The assessment should be conducted in a way that the findings provide answers to the following generic questions.

  • What are the likely consequences of MADE interventions, positive and negative?
  • Who is likely to benefit or to be adversely affected by the interventions?
  • What are the broad characteristics of these groups and any relevant subgroups?
  • What poverty and/or social issues need to be examined further (such as poverty/inequality, gender, environmental pollution, labour, affordability, HIV/AIDS, human trafficking, or other issues)?


  1. Proposed Methodology 

At the end of March 2017, the programme had reached a total of 131,658 farmers and entrepreneurs across the sectors. Given such a target population, a confidence level of 95% and a 5% margin of error it is recommended that a sample size of at least 384 farmers and entrepreneurs could be drawn for the study. In the course of selecting farmers and entrepreneurs for the study, it is also important to consider a wide range of variability factors within the target population. These include gender, crop type, location, etc.


A mix of approaches (both quantitative and qualitative) is proposed for this assessment and should include such methods as use of survey questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. A complementary tool that can be used for this assessment is the Nigerian Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI) which is a simple, easy to administer and statistically rigorous ten-question scorecard that will allow quick and easy calculations of poverty likelihood of a sample of households of small and medium scale farmers and entrepreneurs. The assessment team is expected to design and conduct the assessment, employing best practice in poverty assessment and delivery methodologies.



The key deliverables for the assignment are:

  1. An inception report (includes work plan, literature review, and survey questionnaire) to be submitted to MADE for review and approval before the start of the fieldwork.
  2. Completed questionnaires used for the survey
  3. A draft report to be submitted to MADE for review within two weeks of the completion of field data collection.
  4. The database with the survey data will be the property of MADE and needs to be delivered at the time of the report in excel or SPSS
  5. A final report detailing the survey findings. This report should include, but not be limited to the following:
    1. An executive summary
    2. Context: Brief description of the poverty assessment location and/or activity clusters
    3. Poverty assessment survey design and methodology
    4. Detailed findings of the poverty assessment survey in qualitative and quantitative (descriptive statistics, tables, charts, etc.) format,
    5. Project zone opportunities, constraints and risks
    6. Recommendations
    7. Annexes
      1. Poverty assessment tools
      2. Bibliography
      3. List and contact of persons interviewed
      4. List of tables, graphs, etc.


  1. Qualifications and Experience

The following qualifications and experiences are desirable:

  • An advanced degree in economics, agricultural economics, social sciences or a related field is preferred.
  • Minimum of 10 years’ experience in consulting focusing on development research;
  • Familiarity with market systems programmes, preferably economic growth portfolios;
  • Experience with defining and measuring poverty within the context of market systems development programmes;
  • Excellent verbal and written communication skills in English and;
  • Strong interpersonal skills and experience of working with partner organisations.


  1. Timeframe

We estimate that this assignment will start in mid-June to late June 2017 and will take about 28 working days with a final report submitted by 31 August 2017.


  1. Institutional Arrangements

MADE’s MRM Manager, in collaboration with the Technical Team Leader will oversee this contract and quality of expected work outputs. For the duration of the project, the consultant will provide key communications and documents to Sylvanus Abua ( ), Yemi Oluwakuyide ( or other staff designated by the TL


  1. Confidentiality Statement

All data and information received from MADE for the purpose of this assignment are to be treated confidentially and are only to be used in connection with the execution of these Terms of Reference. All intellectual property rights arising from the execution of these Terms of Reference are assigned to MADE. The contents of written materials obtained and used in this assignment may not be disclosed to any third parties without the expressed advance written authorization of MADE.


Annex 1: List of MADE Interventions


An illustrative list of MADE interventions to date, which are organized under each of the sectors is as follows:


Agricultural Inputs

  • Increasing quality uptake in the use of fertilizer, crop protection products and seeds through adoption of good agricultural practices (GAP);
  • Catalysing agricultural input companies’ establishment of commercially viable and reliable distribution channels through which agricultural inputs are sold directly to farmers and;
  • Application of ICT by Value Added Service Companies in support of smallholder farmers’ adoption of Good Agronomic Practices


  • Sustainable cassava production with improved varieties of cassava and bio-products as inputs in the Niger Delta Region
  • Establishing linkages between processors of high quality cassava farms (HQCF) and smallholder farmers for uptake of fresh tubers


  • Improving fish farmers knowledge, attitude and practices in pond development
  • Deployment of improved fish smoking kilns technology to increase smoking efficiency – reduction in smoking time; fuel cost and increased capacity in the amount of fish that can be smoked in a given time; thus, reduce wastage of unprocessed fish; increase incomes and higher profitability.


Palm Oil

  • Promoting adoption of best management practices by smallholders through good agronomic practice demos set up by agricultural input companies
  • Improving efficiency of small oil processors through adoption of improved processing equipment, harvesting technology and practices.
  • Improving harvesting efficiency through adoption of Mechanical Adjustable Harvester and Malaysian Knife
  • Establishing linkages between smallholder producers and large plantations for uptake of fresh fruit bunches


  • Increasing uptake and improved access to and use of NCD vaccination by traditional poultry keepers thereby reduce poultry mortality due to Newcastle Diseases (and other diseases)
  • Improving productivity and access to new markets for small household poultry producers

Finished Leather Goods

  • Improving quality, distribution and sales of finished leather goods

[1] More details on these sectors can be found in the business case issued to DFID in April 2014 – this and other project documents will be made available to the consultant .


[2] Sebastian Taylor ‘Niger Delta Conflict Analysis’ , MADE Conflict Analysis. (December 2013).

[3] National Bureau of Statistics, Annual Abstract of Statistics, 2011.

[4] Interventions are planned sets of activities undertaken by MADE aimed at promoting the sustainable delivery of a new or improved output. These include processes such as:

  • Exposure of smallholder farmers to best practices using demos (e.g. fish pond management training that spans a period of six months and demonstration of good agronomic practices in specific crops such as cocoa, cassava, palm oil, rice and maize);
  • Exposure of smallholder farmers and entrepreneurs to improved and efficient technologies (i.e. harvesters and processing equipment in palm oil sector and smoking kiln in fisheries sector);
  • Delivery of vaccination services to household poultry keepers by vaccinators and other support providers;
  • Delivery of crop protection products’ sprayer services by service providers;
  • Enterprise development training following Nigerian Agricultural Enterprise Curriculum  (NAEC) for fish farmers, poultry farmers, and agro-retailers and clients interested in accessing loans to grow their businesses;
  • Access to credit, which is still at preliminary stage with a few clients that have received loans from partner financial institutions still in their grace period.



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